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 Know Your Health
 Kidney Stones
 Irritable Bowel Syndrome’
Aerobic Exercise 5.9
Lying Down 1.0
Sitting 1.5
Standing 2.6
Walking Downstairs 7.1
Walking Upstairs 12.0
Mopping Floor 4.9
Gardening 5.6
Walking (5.5 Km/hr) 5.6
Running 10.8
Cycling (8 Km/hr) 5.0
Swimming (pleasure) 6.0
Dancing 4.3
Badminton 6.0
Tennis 8.7
Golf 3.6
Basket Ball 9.6
Running (6mile/hr) 17.8
Squash 14.8
Football 13.0
Source: Saffola Food Check by Dr. Rajesh Parekh
B, Srilakshmi - Dietetics

 Kidney Stones

What Are Kidney Stones?
These are the hard masses developed from crystals in urine. It is also termed as “Urolithiasis” or “Nephrolithiasis”.

Types of Kidney Stones:
• Calcium Oxalate
• Calcium Phosphate
• Cystine Stones
• Uric Acid Stones

Causes of Kidney Stones:
• Family History
• Urinary Tract Infection
• Blockage of urinary Tract
• Cystic Kidney Disease
• Hyperparathyroidism
• Cystinuria
• Hyperoxaluria
• Gout
• Excessive intake of Vitamin D
• Calcium based antacids in some cases
• Certain Diuretics

Symptoms of Kidney Stones:
• Extreme Pain
• Blood in urine
• Burning sensation while passing urine
• Fever in some cases

Management of Kidney Stones:
• Dietary Modification
     o Lifestyle management
     o Fluid balance
     o Balance in nutrients like calcium, vitamin d, uric acid, phytates and oxalates
• Medical therapy
• Surgical treatment in some cases



Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most commonly found functional gastrointestinal disorder worldwide. IBS can be only diagnosed if the clinical symptoms are present for three months or longer & in absence of other diseases. It is seen more commonly in women than men.

Risk factors : The risk factors for IBS differ from person to person. But the most common symptoms are:

Sensitive or reactive colon or large intestine
Irregularity in food pattern
 Severely spicy or fried food
 Excessive use of laxatives
 Side reaction to some drugs or drug allergy

Signs and symptoms : It is characterized most commonly by:

Change in bowel movements
On and off constipation and diarrhea
Abdominal pain

Role of Diet in IBS
 Correct balance in food, vitamins and minerals helps in controlling the symptoms
 Exercise also eases the problem in some ways
 Overall lifestyle management is important


PCOD or polycystic ovarian disease is a condition in which multiple cysts develop in the ovaries due to disruption of normal menstrual cycle. This leads to hormonal imbalance which further causes more production of cysts. In PCOD, mature eggs fail to be expelled from the ovaries creating immature follicles or cysts.

Symptoms :

 Absent or irregular menstrual periods
 Weight gain
 Hirsutism – excessive hair growth on face and body
 Thinning of scalp
 Deranged lipid profile
 Insulin resistance

Role of diet in PCOD:

 Achieve and maintain ideal body weight
 Improve insulin resistance
 Incorporate lower Glycemic index foods
 Incorporate heart friendly foods and normalize lipid levels
 Incorporate more fluids to keep body hydrated and avoid acne/ skin problems